How to Solder Copper Pipe The CORRECT Way | GOT2LEARN

Hi in this video I’ll be thoroughly
explaining how to solder copper pipes they get a nice leak free joint. If
you’re unfamiliar with soldering, you’ll be able to solder any diameter pipe
after this video with ease and peace of mind. There are 3 steps to solder a
copper joint. Step 1 is preparation. preparation is the secret to getting a
leak-free joint. If you skip or half do it, it will most probably leak and
cause damage to your property, so this step needs to be followed very
closely. Step 2 is the actual soldering process which I’ll get into details in
just a moment. And step 3, which is finalizing the joint. With that said
let’s get started. All right, so the first thing I want to go through are the tools
and materials you’ll be needing to complete the task. So tool number one is
a torch. You’ll find a good torch at your local hardware store that should cost
you between 20 to 50 Canadian dollars yes there are better models out there
for commercial plumbers, but if you’re a do-it-yourself doing minor work these
will do just fine. To be able to use your new torch you’ll be needing some fuel.
There are two varieties of fuels for you to choose from.
You’ve got your ordinary propane gas which you can either find in your
camping aisle which should look like this or in the plumbing section at the
store or map gas which should look like this.
The difference between both of these is that map gas burns hotter than propane
which in turn heats up your joint quicker so it’s up to you to choose
which one you want to use. Next up is a lighter for your torch.
If your torch doesn’t have one built-in like this, you can either use a dedicated
igniter which can be somewhat costly or use a $1 BIC lighter like I do. Your pipe
and fitting will need to be cleaned from any surface corrosion or dirt that could
compromise the joint while soldering. To do this, you’ll be needing some sandpaper
or emery cloth for the pipe and wire brushes for the fitting. Something else
you’ll need is some soldering flux or paste. The primary purpose of flux is to
prevent oxidation of the base and filler material, without it soldering is
literally impossible. Here’s what trying to solder with and without flux looks
like. And the last thing you’ll be needing is solder. There are many filler
materials that can be used for soldering copper, but the most two common ones are
lead-solder and lead-free solder. Lead- free solder, which is also known as 95/5,
is what’s used for potable water line. When doing copper drains, lead-solder,
which is also known as 50/50, can be used seeing it won’t come in contact with
anyone. So as I mentioned earlier the video, preparation is key to having a
good leak-free joint. The first step to accomplish this is to clean both parts
that will be joined together. To clean the pipe take your sandpaper and sand
the portion that will penetrate the fitting till it resembles this, as you
can see there’s no more surface spottings and that’s exactly what we’re
looking for. Next is the fitting, you want to use a
dedicated size brush where you’re fitting to get it clean. They most often
arrive clean from the manufacturer but it’s important to get the surface
roughed up a bit just so the solder can adhere better. If you’re a commercial
plumber and are cleaning a large amount of fittings in a day, a cool trick that I
learned is to cut off the tip of these and use them in a drill as such making
the process much quicker and less tiring. With both of your surfaces now prepped
let’s assemble them, but before you’ll need to apply some flux. Applying flux is
pretty self-explanatory, all that’s needed is enough of it to cover both
surfaces that touch just like this. With your flux now applied it’s time for the
actual soldering process which is step 2. Now the goal here is to heat the portion
you want your filler material to be pulled into. There’s a scientific term
for this and it’s called capillary action. Capillary action is the ability
of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of external
forces meaning it will flow upwards which is pretty cool. It’s imperative to
start heating your joint at the bottom first for two reasons. Reason one being
is if you start heating the top first, your solder will want to flow down due
to gravity but won’t have anywhere to go since the bottom of the joint is too
cool to melt the solder, so always start from the bottom and work your way up. And
reason two is as you heat the bottom the heat rises and heats up the top of your
joint as opposed to starting on top which takes longer for the heat to go down.
So keep on heating it up while testing your solder every now and then to see if
it gets sucked in. Eventually your joint will be hot enough to accept your solder
so go ahead and run a nice bead all around the joint to ensure full coverage.
A good tip here is always inspect your joint after soldering it it’ll speak for
itself meaning that if you haven’t correctly heated the joint, you should get
something that looks like this. If this happens, all you have to do is reapply a
bit of flux, heat up the joint and solder the affected area. As a final step, when
you’re sure that your joint is soldered correctly wait a couple of minutes for
it to cool down. Some plumbers will use flux to clean up the joint while it’s still very hot
but doing this could cause a big drop in temperature in very small amount of
time and can fracture the joint causing a leak.
Once your solder solidifies, use a rag to wipe off any excess flux that could
potentially eat up your pipe in the long run and you’re done. If you guys enjoyed
this back to basics video, let me know in the comments down below so I could
add to this series and also what type of topics you’d like to see as always don’t
forget to follow me on Instagram I post content regularly so go check it out and
also follow me on Facebook and I invite you to subscribe to the channel for more
cool upcoming videos thanks again for watching

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